As a result of growing concern about tax revenues worldwide, the role of offshore tax havens is under increased scrutiny. There are calls for more transparency at the G8 summit and recommendations by the OECD. To establish international tax rules at the G20 next month.
International Consortium of Investigative Journalists launched last month an online database of private offshore banks entities. This has added fuel to the fire of voter dissatisfaction with austerity measures, higher taxes, and other financial reforms.
The Global North, a group of developed nations, has not been able to resist the softening of the Global South. Where clients from the region’s wealthiest countries are able to access the majority of Pacific Island tax-haven businesses.
The economic power shift from north to south has meant that the future of tax havens in the Pacific Islands may depend on the outcome of a larger struggle between the United States of America and Europe and the emerging economies of Asia.
Spotlight On Tax Heavens
Tax havens are characterized by low tax rates and regulatory oversight, as well as thick layers of secrecy. Many believe that these offshore financial centers are part of the shadow banking system that caused the GFC. They help to create complex, high-risk financial structures far from the underlying assets.
Parallel banking systems used unregulated tax havens as a way to channel large amounts of foreign and domestic cash into mortgages. This created a speculative bubble in residential and commercial real property around the globe. This created a lot of debt, particularly between 2004 and 2007. This shadow banking system collapsed on 7 August 2007 and created the credit crisis.
Many policy-makers from the Global North regions of North America, Europe and North America have expressed concern about the widespread use of tax havens in today’s financial world in the wake of the global financial crises.
These economies are currently in a persistent recession that has seen a decline in real estate prices, household wealth, and consumption. This has led to costly government stimulus programs, as well as tax revenue shortfalls, and gaping budget deficits. This has increased the political attacks on offshore havens that facilitate tax evasion. There are calls for more regulation and elimination of offshore havens after the collapse of Iceland’s banking system and, more recently, Cyprus.
Advocate groups for the poor of developing countries have also mobilized against havens. They are accused of aiding capital flight, corruption, under-investment and drug trafficking, as well as elite wealth/public squalor within the Global South. With governments and international organizations claiming they will be limited or eliminated, tax havens appear to be fighting for their survival.
These images can help you understand the financial centres offshore in Oceania. The largest centres are Samoa and the Marshall Islands, Vanuatu, Vanuatu, and Cook Islands. However, there are small niche financial centres within the region such as Nauru or the Federated States of Micronesia.
Samoa is focused on China’s growing trade. The country’s offshore center is a major conduit for Chinese investment and the two countries have very good Tax relations.
Flags of convenience for both ships and offshore oil drilling rigs are a strong strength in the Marshall Islands. International trade declined after the GFC, which led to a shipping crisis. This accelerated maritime companies’ efforts to reduce their labour, taxes, and regulatory costs using flags of convenience offered offshore by centres like the Marshall Islands. These islands were already thriving as the legal residence of many of the largest shipping companies in the world, and have the third-largest fleet (over 2780 ships totalling more than 8 million tonnes).
Vanuatu is also a major supplier for flags of convenience. It has registered about 600 ships and 2 million tonnes of gross cargo. The Cook Islands are a leader in asset protection trusts. Vanuatu’s focus is on offshore banking, insurance and gambling. Nauru has offshore companies. For Japanese clients, the Federated States of Micronesia create offshore insurance companies.
Every species has had to find the right environment and avoid uninhabitable situations throughout their history. Many animals and plants will find their home less welcoming as the climate changes.
Animals can seek shelter in the short-term, while plants can prevent drying out by closing their small pores on the leaves. These behavioural responses may not be sufficient over a longer time. To escape harsh environments, some species may have to migrate to better habitats.
Large swathes on Earth’s surface were inhospitable by large numbers of animals and plants during glacial times. Populations began to migrate away from their original ranges or died off. Many people would move to more hospitable areas in order to survive these harsh climate conditions.
These areas were call refugia, and their presence was essential for the survival of many species. This may made more difficult by the rapid increase in global temperatures and recent human activity.
Locating The Refugia Species
A species’ genome often contains evidence for historic climate refugia. A refugium’s population will usually be smaller than its parent population. The expanding population will lose genetic diversity through genetic drift and inbreeding. We can find potential refugia by sequencing multiple individuals from different species to determine the genetic diversity hotspots.
My colleagues and me recently conduct research on population genetic diversity within the narrow-leaf Hopbush, an Australian native plant that was use in beer-making by early European Australians. The hopbush found in a variety of habitats including woodlands and rocky outcrops at mountain ranges. It has a large distribution throughout central and southern Australia. The hopbush is an extremely hardy species that can withstand drought.
The Flinders Ranges population had higher genetic diversity than the ones to the east, which suggests that they are remnants of an old refugee. Mountain ranges can be a refuge for species, as they only require them to move a short distance up or down the slope in order to maintain their ideal climatic conditions.
The peak of the last Ice Age in Australia led to dry conditions in the middle. Many animal and plant species began to migrate southwards, seeking refuge in southern regions that were more humid. An area known as Adelaide Geosyncline in the south-central region has been recognize as an important historical refuge for many animal and plant species. The area includes two mountain ranges of significant importance: Mount Lofty and Flinders.
The Future Is Your Refuge
Refugia at higher elevations and towards the poles are good options for those experiencing high temperatures. These shifts are already evident in species distributions Species.
However, migrating up a mountain could lead to a dead end. Eventually, species reach the top and are unable to move on. The American Pika is a cold-adapted relative to rabbits and lives in mountainous areas in North America. Because of extreme heat in many alpine areas, it has been force to flee from its former home.
Furthermore, species are forced to migrate rapidly due to the unprecedent global temperature rise. This is combined with the destruction of natural habitats by agriculture and urbanization, which can lead to migration to suitable refugia becoming impossible for many species.
Although evidence is not available for both climate change and habitat fragmentation, it is clear that the consequences are severe. Modeling the combined effects of climate change, habitat fragmentation and drought on British butterflies led to widespread population extinction predictions by 2050.
The Adelaide Geosyncline is the focus of our study. It has been extremely fragmented since European settlement. There are only 10% of the remaining native forests in some areas. Because of this, the few remaining patches of native vegetation have been left very fragmented. These pockets will limit migration and gene flow, which could impact species like the hopbush’s survival chances.
While refugia may have been able to save species in the past and some poleward or up-slope shifts may offer temporary refuge for others, global temperatures will continue to rise and more species will be force beyond their limits.
English is the language of international science. Our new research shows how much scientific knowledge is not tap in other languages. This is a waste of opportunities to improve the situation for the one million species at risk.
Nearly 420,000 peer-review papers in biodiversity conservation were review. They were publish in 16 languages. While many papers in non-English languages provided evidence of the effectiveness conservation measures, they not often disseminate to the larger scientific community.
Many important scientific breakthroughs have been publish in languages other than English. History has shown this. In 1977, the structure of an antimalarial drug that won the Nobel Prize was publish in simplified Chinese. Many of the first papers on COVID-19 were also publish in simplified Chinese.
For the Earth’s biodiversity crisis to be solve, evidence-based conservation is essential. Our research suggests that more effort is require to overcome language barriers in science and maximize scientific contributions to conservation. This will help save the planet’s biodiversity.
English Conservation Game-Changer
Many scientists speak English as their first or second language. Many academic reward programs encourage publication in English-language journals.
However, field conservationists and scientists are often able to provide important evidence for biodiversity conservation. They are not as fluent in English as they should be. Many prefer to publish work in their native language, which is often not English.
Over one-third (33%) of scientific papers on biodiversity conservation have been publish in languages other that English. But, this knowledge is seldom use at an international level https://qqonline.bet/.
For example, take the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services. An analysis of IPBES biodiversity assessment report has shown that 96% of references cited in English are document.
To tackle any global problem, including the biodiversity crisis is dependent on accessing the best knowledge available in whatever language it’s written. TranslatE aims to remove language barriers and improve information flow.
We screen 419 679 peer-reviewed papers that were publish in 16 non English languages between 1888 to 2020. These papers covered a broad range of subjects. These papers covered a wide range of fields, including biodiversity, ecology and conservation biology.
Effectiveness And Efficiency English
There were 1,234 papers in the 16 non-English languages which provided evidence of the effectiveness and efficiency of biodiversity conservation interventions. This is why the Conservation Evidence database contains 4,412-language papers. It documents global research on the effectiveness of conservation actions.
Over the years, the rate at which relevant studies are publish is increasing in six languages other than English: French, German Japanese, Portuguese Russian, and simplified Chinese. We found two non-language studies: one in Spanish on resolving conflict between livestock farmers and threatened Andean mountain cat populations in northern Patagonia and another in Japan on relocation of Blakiston’s fish-owls.
These findings could provide valuable insight into human-nature conflicts or management of threatened birds in other parts the world. The majority of Englishs-language evidence about what works in conservation is based on Europe and North America. Evidence is severely lacking in some biodiverse areas where conservation is most needed, such as Latin America.
Language research is common in areas where language studies are not available, such as Latin America and Russia (see figure below). Non studies often include species that are not cover in studies. The incorporation of non studies into scientific knowledge would increase scientific knowledge in 12-25% more geographical areas and 5-32% additional species.
Global Knowledge Tapping Into It
Non-English-language scientists can be use to fill in gaps in English-language science. This is a cost-effective and quick way to make the most of them. Our research suggests that more effort should made to synthesize non-English-language-studies and to make this knowledge available in for a wider audience.
Research projects should include native speakers of various languages. We collaborated with 62 people who are all native speakers of 17 languages to complete our research. Must draw on the expertise, experience, and knowledge of all people to stop Earth’s extinction crisis. We urge other disciplines to reconsider the potential of non-English science in order to address global problems.